William Milberg

Dean and Professor of Economics

William Milberg is Dean and Professor of Economics at the New School for Social Research and Co-Director of the Heilbroner Center for Capitalism Studies at The New School.

2010 - PRESENT


“Industrial Policy in the Era of Vertically Specialized Industrialization”

in Industrial Policy for Economic Development: Lessons from Country Experiences, edited by J. Salazar-Xirinachs and R. Kozul-Wright, Palgrave Macmillan, 2014 (with X. Jiang and G. Gereffi).


“Implications of the Financial Crisis for Firm Innovation”

Journal of Post Keynesian Economics, Vol. 36, No. 2, Winter 2013-14 (with N. Shapiro).

“Does Industrial Upgrading Lead to Employment and Wage Gains?”

Oxford Handbook of Outsourcing and Employment, A. Bardhan et al., Editors, Oxford University Press, 2013 (with T. Bernhardt).

“A Note on Economic Austerity in Science, Morality, and Political Economy”

Social Research, Vol. 80, No. 3, Fall 2013.

“Methodenstreit 2013: Historical Perspective on the Contemporary Debate Over How to Reform Macroeconomics”

Forum for Social Economics, 2013 (prize for best article in the journal in 2012-2013, with P. Spiegler).


”Bias in the ’ Proportionality Assumption’ Used in the Measurement of Offshoring”

World Economics, Vol. 14, No. 4, October-December 2012 (with D. Winkler).

“Classical and Neoclassical Theories of Offshore Outsourcing”

in M. Trautwein, editor, Macroeconomics and Income Distribution: Essays in Honor of Harald Hageman, 2012 (with D. Winkler).


“Economic and Social Upgrading in Global Production Networks: Problems of Theory and Measurement”

International Labour Review, 2011 (with D. Winkler).

“The Business of Macroeconomic Imbalances:  Comparing Gluts in Savings, Money and Profits”

in P. Arestis, editor, Income Distribution and Economic Growth: Essays in Honor of Malcolm Sawyer, London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011 (with L. Schmitz)

"After T-Bills and T-Shirts: China’s Role in “High” and “Low” Fashion after the Global Economic Crisis"

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, 2011 (with H. Clark).


“Financialization and the Dynamics of Offshoring”

Cambridge Journal of Economics, March, 2010 (with D. Winkler).

“Economic Insecurity in the New Wave of Globalization: Offshoring and the Labor Share Under Varieties of Capitalism”

International Review of Applied Economics, 2010. (with D. Winkler)

“Trade, Crisis and Recovery: Restructuring of Global Value Chains”

Policy Research Working Paper 5294, The World Bank, May 2010 (with D. Winkler).    

“Robert Heilbroner”

The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2nd edition, 2008.


2000 - 2009


“The New Social Science Imperialism and the Problem of Knowledge in Contemporary Economics”

in S. Gudeman, editor, Economic Persuasions, Oxford: Berghan, 2009.

“The Taming of Institutions in Economics: The Origins and Methodology of the New New Institutional Economics”

Journal of Institutional Economics, 2009 (with P. Spiegler).

“Keynes’s Stimulus, Polanyi’s Moment”

Harvard College Economics Review, Vol. 3, No. 2, Spring 2009.

“Old ideas in modern times: Is Keynes Obsolete?”

invited panelist, Association for Socio-Economics, San Jose, Costa Rica, June 2008.


“Globalization, Offshoring and Economic Insecurity in Industrialized Countries”

Background Paper, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations, New York, September 2008 (with D. Schoeller).

“Shifting Sources and Uses of Profits: Sustaining US Financialization with Global Value Chains”

Economy and Society, Vol. 37, No. 3, August 2008.

“Trade Theory Dissidents”

review of Bad Samaritans: Rich Nations, Poor Policies, and the Threat to the Developing World by Ha-Joon Chang, The Resistible Rise of Market Fundamentalism: Rethinking Development Policy in an Unbalanced World by Richard Kozul-Wright and Paul Rayment, and How the Rich Countries Got Rich… and Why Poor Countries Remain Poor by Erik S. Reinert, Challenge, Vol. 51, No. 4, July/August 2008.

“Outsourcing Economics”

in D. Ruccio, editor, Economic Representations: Academic and Everyday, London: Routledge, 2008.


“Is the Sky Falling?: Questioning the Conventional Wisdom on the U.S. Trade and Budget Deficits

Challenge, Vol. 50, No. 6, November-December 2007.

“Export Processing Zones, Industrial Upgrading and Economic Development”

Background paper for ILO governing board discussion on the development impact of EPZs, ILO, Geneva, 2007.

“Dynamic Gains from Services Offshoring: A Critical View”

in Eva Paus, editor, Global Capitalism Unbound: Winners and Losers from Offshore Outsourcing London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007, (with M. Mahoney, M. Schneider and R. von Arnim).

The Shifting and Allegorical Rhetoric of “Neoclassical” Economics

Review of Social Economics, Vol. 65, No. 2, June 2007

“Pricing and Profits Under Globalized Competition: A Post Keynesian Perspective on U.S. Economic Hegemony”

URPE session at ASSA meetings, Chicago, January 2007.


“Developing Countries and the Collapse of the Doha Round”

Challenge, Vol. 49, No. 6, November-December 2006 (with Yilmaz Akyüz and Robert Wade).

“Global Stability Rests on Sharing the Gains”

Financial Times, September 7, 2006 (with J. Kregel).

“State-Market Relations in a Globalized Economy”

SCEPA Policy Brief, April 2006 (with J. Madrick and M. Mahoney).    

“Spurring Growth Dynamics from Services Offshoring”

SCEPA Policy Brief, March 2006 (with M. Mahoney, M. Schneider and R. von Arnim).


“In Memorium: Robert Heilbroner, 1919-2005”

European Journal of the History of Economic Thought, Vol. 12, No. 2, June 2005.

“The High Road and the Low Road to International Competitiveness: Extending the Neo-Schumpeterian Model Beyond Technology”

International Review of Applied Economics, April 2005. (with E. Houston)


“After the “New Economics”—Pragmatist Turn?”

in E. Khalil, editor, Dewey, Pragmatism and Economic Methodology, London, Routledge, 2004.

“Deindustrialization and Changes in Manufacturing Trade: Factor Content Calculations for 1978-1995”

Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, 2004 (with D. Kucera).

“Globalized Production: Structural Challenges for Developing Country Workers”

in W. Milberg, Editor, Labor and the Globalization of Production: Causes and Consequences of Industrial Upgrading, London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004

“The End of Welfare Economics as We Know It:  A Review Essay”

Rethinking Marxism, Vol. 16, No. 4, Winter 2004.

“The Changing Structure of Trade Linked to Global Production Systems: What are the Policy Implications?”

International Labour Review, September 2004.

“The Robert Heilbroner Problem”

Social Research, Vol. 71, No. 2, Summer 2004.



in The Elgar Companion to Post Keynesian Economics, edited by J.E. King, Edward Elgar Pub, 2003.


"Say’s Law in the Open Economy: Keynes’s Rejection of the Theory of Comparative Advantage”

in Beyond Keynes, S. Dow and J. Hillard, editors, Aldershot, UK: Edward Elgar, 2002.


“Decentering the Market Metaphor in International Economics”

in Postmodernism, Knowledge and Economics, S. Cullenberg, D. Ruccio and J. Amariglio, editors, Routledge, 2001.

“Economic Institutions and the Persistence of Global Inequalities”

in Power, Employment and Accumulation, edited by J. Stanford et al., M.E. Sharpe, 2001.

"Skill mismatch, bureaucratic burden, and rising earnings inequality in the US: What do hours and earnings trends by occupation show?"

in Power, employment and accumulation: Social structures in economic theory and practice, J. Stanford, L. Taylor, E. Houston, editors, Routledge, 2001 (D. Howell and E. Houston).


1988 - 1999


“Globalization and Its Limits”

in Transnational Corporations and the Global Economy, R. Kozul-Wright and R. Rowthorn, editors, MacMillan, 1998.



entry in The Handbook of Economic Methodology, J. Davis, W. Hands and U. Maki, editors, Aldershot, UK: Edward Elgar, 1998.


“The Rhetoric of Policy Relevance in International Economics”

Journal of Economic Methodology, Vol. 3, No. 2, 1996.

"The Productivity Convergence Debate: A Theoretical and Methodological Reconsideration"

Cambridge Journal of Economics, March 1996 (with B. Elmslie).

"Free Trade and Social Dumping: Lessons from the Regulation of Insterstate Commerce"

Challenge Magazine, May-June 1996 (with B. Elmslie).


"Transnational Corporations and Mexican Autos: Impacts of Sectoral and Macroeconomic Policies"

in International Finance in the New World Order, edited by H.P. Gray and S. Richard, Pergamon Press, 1995 (with M. Twomey).

"Interview in Conversations with Post Keynesians"

J.E. King, St. Martin’s Press, 1995.


"Is Absolute Advantage Passé?: Towards a Post Keynesian/Marxian Theory of International Trade"

in Competition, Technology and Money: Classical and Post-Keynesian Perspectives, edited by M. Glick, Edward Elgar Publishers, 1994.

"Technology Gap"

entry in The Elgar Companion of Radical Political Economy, edited by P. Arestis and M. Sawyer, Edward Elgar Publishers, 1994.

“Turn Off the Lights: Post-Industrial Economy"

CEO International, January 1994.

"Market Competition and the Failure of Competitiveness Enhancement Policies in the United States"

Journal of Economic Issues, June 1994.

"Objectivism, Relativism and the Importance of Rhetoric for Marxist Economics"

Review of Radical Political Economics, Vol. 26, No. 1, 1994 (with B. Pietrykowski).


"The Advantage of Relative Backwardness: An Input-Output Approach"

in The Political Economy of Restructuring, edited by I. Rima, Edward Elgar Publishers, 1993. (with B. Elmslie) 

"Degree of Monopoly, Pricing and Flexible Exchange Rates"

Journal of Post Keynesian Economics, Winter 1993-94. (with P. Arestis)

"Natural Order and Postmodernism in Economic Thought"

Social Research, Vol. 60, No. 4, Summer 1993.


"International Competitiveness and Policy in Dynamic Industries"

Banca Nazionale del Lavoro Quarterly Review, No. 180, March 1992. (with P. Gray)

"International Trade and the Factor Intensity Uniformity Hypothesis: An Empirical Assessment"

Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, September 1992 (with B. Elmslie).


“Structural Change and International Competitiveness in Canada: An Alternative Approach”

International Review of Applied Economics, Vol. 5, no. 1, 1991.

"Sidney Weintraub"

entry in Dictionary of Dissenting Economists, edited by P. Arestis and M. Sawyer, Edward Elgar Publishers, 1991 (with J. Deprez).

"Marxism, Poststructuralism and the Discourse of Economics"

Rethinking Marxism, Vol. 4, No. 2, Summer 1991.


"Cycle and Trend in the Macrodynamics of Advanced Market Economies"

Journal of Economic Issues, June 1990 (with J. Deprez).


"The Power of Ideas and the Impact of One Man: Alfred Eichner, 1937-1987"

Journal of Post Keynesian Economics, Spring 1989. (with M. Groves and F. Lee)


"Using Better Measures of Disability Status"

in Measuring the Efficiency of Public Programs: Costs and Benefits in Vocational Rehabilitation, edited by M. Berkowitz, Temple University Press, 1988. (with D. Dean)

"The Language of Economics: Deconstructing the Neoclassical Text"

Social Concept, Vol. 4, No. 2, June 1988.

"A Product Line, Life-Cycle Model of Intra-industry Trade"

Eastern Economic Journal, October-December 1988.

©William  Milberg